This version:
http://www.openannotation.org/spec/alpha3/examples/gatsby/
Latest version:
http://www.openannotation.org/spec/examples/gatsby/
Editors
Tim Cole, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Tom Habing, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Contributors
Allen Renear, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Carole Palmer, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Larry Jackson, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Kevin Trainor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Simone Sacchi, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Yan Wang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Abstract

examples of Annotations described according to the OAC Data Model and using 2 chapters of an XHTML digitized version of the Great Gatsby as Annotation Targets.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
     1.2 Namespaces Used
2. Data Model examples
     2.1 Multiple Targets
     2.2 Additional Properties and Relationships
     2.3 Fragment Identifiers (XPointer)
     2.4 Alternate Serialization (RDFa)
     2.5 Inline Information (Inline Body)
     2.6 Multiple Targets vs. ORE Aggregation as Annotation Target

Appendices

A. Change Log


1. Introduction

These illustrations of annotations described in accord with the OAC data model use text snippets from chapters 1 and 4 of an XHTML version of the Great Gatsby as annotation targets. The XHTML of each chapter is a separate resource (separate URI), so these examples illustrate how the OAC data model can be used to describe annotations having multiple targets. Some of these examples also illustrate annotations that use XPointer Fragment Identifiers as part of target URIs, and one illustration shows the use of an ORE Aggregation as the annotation target. The annotation bodies used for these examples are snippets of XHTML. In some of the serializations given below, that annotation body is given inline within the annotation serialization. Links to RDF/XML serializations and in one instance an RDFa serialization are provided. These annotations target specifically a single XHTML manifestation of the Great Gatsby and so do not address issues of targeting text of the novel at expression or work level.

These illustrations were inspired by a brief passage from Lehan, R. D. (1990). The great Gatsby: The limits of wonder. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers. (With apologies to Prof. Lehan.) Suggested for use as an illustration by Kevin Trainor.

1.1 Namespaces Used

This example uses the following namespaces and prefixes to indicate those namespaces:

Prefix Namespace URI Description
cnt http://www.w3.org/2008/content# Content in RDF [Content]
dc http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ Dublin Core elements [DC Elements]
dcterms http://purl.org/dc/terms/ Dublin Core terms [DC Terms]
foaf http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ Friend of a Friend vocabulary terms [FOAF]
oac http://www.openannotation.org/ns/ OAC vocabulary terms [OAC]
rdf http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# RDF vocabulary terms [RDF Vocabulary]
rdfs http://www.w3.org/2001/01/rdf-schema# RDF Schema vocabulary [RDF Vocabulary]

2. Data Model examples

 

2.1 Multiple Targets [cf. OAC Data Model Alpha3 Section 3.6]

A user creates an annotation of the Great Gatsby. The Annotation Body (content of the annotation) is instantiated in XHTML format. The Annotation Body compares snippets of text found in 2 different chapters of a particular XHTML-digitized manifestation of the novel.

Multiple Targets Annotation - Basic Relationships
Model Instance
URI Table
oac:Annotation http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Annotation
oac:hasTarget http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasTarget
oac:hasBody http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasBody
oac:Target http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Target
oac:Body http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Body
ex:Anno http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyExample2.1.rdf
ex:MyNote http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyBody2.1.html
ex:text1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html
ex:text2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html
ex:Anno   a oac:Annotation ,
          oac:hasTarget ex:text1,
	  oac:hasTarget ex:text2,
          oac:hasBody ex:MyNote.

ex:text1 a oac:Target .
ex:text2 a oac:Target.
ex:MyNote   a oac:Body .         

2.2 Additional Properties and Relationships [cf. OAC Data Model Alpha3 Section 3.3]

We can add extra properties and relationships to the resources involved in the Annotation.

Additional Properties and Relationships
Model Instance
URI Table
oac:Annotation http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Annotation
oac:Target http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Target
oac:Body http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Body
oac:hasTarget http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasTarget
oac:hasBody http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasBody
ex:Anno http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyExample2.2.rdf
ex:MyNote http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyBody2.2.html
ex:text1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html
ex:text2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html
ex:User http://www.english.example.edu/people/facpages.asp?person_id=74
dc:title http://www.purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title
dcterms:creator http://www.purl.org/dc/terms/creator
dcterms:created http://www.purl.org/dc/terms/created
foaf:name http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
foaf:mbox http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox
ex:Anno      a oac:Annotation ,
         oac:hasTarget ex:text1,
         oac:hasTarget ex:text2,
         oac:hasBody ex:MyNote.
         dc:title "Great Gatsby Example" ,
         dcterms:creator ex:User ,
         dcterms:created "2010-01-27 10:30:56" .

ex:User      a foaf:Agent ,
         foaf:name "R. D. Smith" ,
         foaf:mbox "jsmith@example.edu" .

ex:text1      a oac:Target.
ex:text2      a oac:Target.
ex:MyNote     a oac:Body.  

2.3 Fragment Identifiers (XPointer) [cf. OAC Data Model Alpha3 Section 3.7.1]

More specific Annotation Targets can be expressed appending XPointer Fragments to XHTML Chapter URIs. This leads to an annotation with 3 Targets rather than 2.

Fragment Identifiers for Targets
Model Instance
URI Table
oac:Annotation http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Annotation
oac:hasTarget http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasTarget
oac:hasBody http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasBody
oac:Target http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Target
oac:Body http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Body
ex:Anno http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyExample2.3.rdf
ex:MyNote http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyBody2.3.html
ex:frag1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1]/div%5B2%5D/p%5B38%5D,%22%22,1))
ex:frag2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1%5D/div%5B2%5D/p%5B145%5D,%22%22,1,78))
ex:frag3 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1%5D/div%5B2%5D/p%5B3%5D,%22%22,1,224))
ex:text1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html
ex:text2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html
ex:Anno   a oac:Annotation ,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag1,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag2,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag2,
	oac:hasBody ex:MyNote.

ex:frag1 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text1.
	
ex:frag2 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text2.
	
ex:frag3 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text2.
	
ex:MyNote   a oac:Body .         

2.4 Serialization of the Model [cf. OAC Data Model Alpha3 Section 3.2]

The RDF for the Annotation described above can be seralized as RDFa included in the XHTML containing the Annotation Body as illustrated here. Note that the Annotation in this illustration is identified using fragment identifiers; this is convenient if including multiple Annotations in a single XHTML+RDFa instance. The Annotation Body is identified using a fragment identifier as well. Using a RDFa distiller, the RDFa for this example can be extracted and serialized as RDF-XML, Turtle, or N-Triples.

Fragment Identifiers for Targets -- RDFa Serialization
Model Instance
URI Table
oac:Annotation http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Annotation
oac:hasTarget http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasTarget
oac:hasBody http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasBody
oac:Target http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Target
oac:Body http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Body
ex:Anno http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyExample2.4.html#GatsbyAnnotation
ex:MyNote http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyExample2.4.html#GatsbyAnnotation_Body
ex:frag1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1]/div%5B2%5D/p%5B38%5D,%22%22,1))
ex:frag2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1%5D/div%5B2%5D/p%5B145%5D,%22%22,1,78))
ex:frag3 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1%5D/div%5B2%5D/p%5B3%5D,%22%22,1,224))
ex:text1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html
ex:text2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html
RDF
ex:Anno   a oac:Annotation ,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag1,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag2,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag2,
	oac:hasBody ex:MyNote.

ex:frag1 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text1.
	
ex:frag2 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text2.
	
ex:frag3 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text2.
	
ex:MyNote   a oac:Body .         

2.5 Inline Information [cf. OAC Data Model Alpha3 Section 3.5]

The XHTML-formatted Annotation Body can be included in the Annotation Document. (As of 12 October 2010, the RDF Schema linked from the the 29 October 2009 Working Draft of Representing Content in RDF did not yet include all of the entities described in the Working Draft.)

Inline Body
Model Instance
URI Table
oac:Annotation http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Annotation
oac:hasTarget http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasTarget
oac:hasBody http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasBody
oac:Target http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Target
oac:Body http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Body
ex:Anno http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyExample2.5.rdf
ex:uuid URN:uuid:751183c0-d182-11df-bd3b-0800200c9a66
cnt:ContentAsXML http://www.w3.org/2008/content#ContentAsXML
cnt:rest http://www.w3.org/2008/content#rest
cnt:characterEncoding http://www.w3.org/2008/content#characterEncoding
cnt:dtDecl http://www.w3.org/2008/content#dtDecl
cnt:DoctypeDecl http://www.w3.org/2008/content#DoctypeDecl
cnt:systemId http://www.w3.org/2008/content#systemId
cnt:doctypeName http://www.w3.org/2008/content#doctypeName
cnt:publicId http://www.w3.org/2008/content#publicId
ex:frag1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1]/div%5B2%5D/p%5B38%5D,%22%22,1))
ex:frag2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1%5D/div%5B2%5D/p%5B145%5D,%22%22,1,78))
ex:frag3 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1%5D/div%5B2%5D/p%5B3%5D,%22%22,1,224))
ex:text1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html
ex:text2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html
ex:Anno   a oac:Annotation ,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag1,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag2,
	oac:hasTarget ex:frag2,
	oac:hasBody ex:uuid.

ex:frag1 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text1.
	
ex:frag2 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text2.
	
ex:frag3 a oac:Target ,
	dcterms:isPartOf ex:text2.
	
ex:uuid   a oac:Body ,
	a cnt:ContentAsXML ,
	cnt:characterEncoding "utf-8" ,
	cnt:rest "<html ....><head><title>Daisy from the Great Gatsby....</html>"
	cnt:dtDecl #dtd0 .
	
#dtd0  a cnt:DoctypeDecl , 
     cnt:systemId  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd"
     cnt:docttypeName   "html",
     cnt:publicId   "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN".	

2.6 Multiple Targets vs. ORE Aggregation as Annotation Target

Not all annotations involving multiple resources in addition to the Annotation Body are best described as Multiple Target Annotations. Consider an Annotation Body as follows:

Daisy is kept so vague and impalpable that Fitzgerald makes key mistakes in accounting for her chronology. These mistakes are more evident when reading the text in the order of events described rather than in narrative order. Consider the following text fragments in the order listed:
  1. We are told in Chapter 4, for example, that Daisy gives birth to her child in April 1920.
  2. We also know from Chapter 4 that the novel takes place in the summer of 1922.
  3. And we are told in Chapter 1 that at the time the novel takes place the child is three years old.
Read in sequence, this makes obvious a mistake in the chronology of the narrative that is otherwise obscured to the casual reader reading in narrative order. If the child was born in April 1920, it would be only two years and two months old at the time the novel takes place, an error of fact that calls attention to itself in a novel so otherwise intricately weaved.
Given this Annotation Body it would be reasonable to describe the Annotation as targeting not 3 individual text fragments, but rather a single ordered set of text fragments. Accordingly, an ORE Aggregation would be a reasonable option as Annotation Target for this Annotation.
ORE Aggregation as Target of Annotation
Model Instance
URI Table
oac:Annotation http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Annotation
oac:hasTarget http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasTarget
oac:hasBody http://www.openannotation.org/ns/hasBody
oac:Target http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Target
oac:Body http://www.openannotation.org/ns/Body
ex:Anno http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyExample2.6.rdf
ex:MyNote http://www.openannotation.org/examples/gatsby/GatsbyBody2.6.html
ex:MyAgg http://www.openannotation.org/spec/alpha3/examples/gatsby/gatsby-ore.rdf#aggregation
ex:frag1 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter1.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1]/div%5B2%5D/p%5B38%5D,%22%22,1))
ex:frag2 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1%5D/div%5B2%5D/p%5B145%5D,%22%22,1,78))
ex:frag3 http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fitzgerald/f_scott/gatsby/chapter4.html#xpointer(string-range(/html/body%5B1%5D/div%5B2%5D/p%5B3%5D,%22%22,1,224))
ex:Anno   a oac:Annotation ,
	oac:hasTarget ex:MyAnn,
	oac:hasBody ex:MyNote.

ex:MyAgg a ore:Aggregation,
	
ex:MyNote   a oac:Body .         

B. Change Log

Date Editor Description
2010-10-12 tcole External alpha3 release
2011-03-14 tcole updated 2.6, alternate to multiple targets
 
Creative Commons LicenseThis work by the Open Annotation Collaboration is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.